Teacher Performance in Tanzania: Discovering the Influence of Salary as a Motivational Catalyst - A Systematic Review

Yusuph Maulid Kambuga


This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between teachers' salaries and their performance in Tanzania. The study highlights the importance of teachers and their role in shaping future generations. However, the low salary levels of teachers have resulted in low motivation, high turnover, and low performance. The review methodology involved a systematic search of electronic databases using keywords related to Tanzania, teacher salaries, teacher performance, motivation, turnover, and job satisfaction through publish or perish software. Databases such as Semantic Scholar, ERIC, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies published between 2010 and 2023. The study used established inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sixteen studies met the criteria, including three quantitative, eight mixed-method, and five qualitative studies.

The findings reliably showed that low salaries negatively affect teacher performance worldwide. Teachers receiving low salaries are less motivated, have lower job satisfaction, and are more likely to engage in absenteeism and moonlighting. Moreover, low salaries lead to a brain drain of highly qualified teachers from the public education system to private schools or other professions. The study highlights the importance of addressing the issue of low salaries for teachers in Tanzania to improve teacher performance and the quality of education. The findings showed the role of policymakers, educators, and stakeholders, underscoring the need for a policy addressing the issue of low teacher salaries to improve the quality of education.


Low salary, teacher performance, teacher motivation, retention, turnover

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